- Prehistoric cave drawings are considered the first form of human communication. Some early humans dwelt in caves, which provided shelter from the elements and predatory animals. To convey past events of importance, rituals or ideas, cave dwellers would draw pictures on the walls of their homes. Language had not developed to the point at which it was adequate to convey these concepts, so drawings communicated what words could not.
- Written language developed as humans settled into agrarian communities. The switch from hunting-based societies to non-nomadic lifestyles based on agriculture took place roughly 9,000 years ago. Writing became important as humans recognized the need to keep records of property and trade. At first, pictures represented the objects that were being written about. As societies developed further, pictures then represented sounds. Ultimately in the West, the language of pictures gave way to letters, which were graphic representations of particular sounds. Stringing letters together created words.
- For hundreds of years, documents were written by hand, which could be time consuming. The skill of writing was confined to an elite, well-educated class, most of whom were clergy. In the 14th century, block printing became popular. Block printing involved using individual etched wooden blocks to print single words or letters. This process was expensive and inefficient. In 1454, German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing machine that contained movable blocks. Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book production, making books affordable and accessible.
- The invention of the printing press certainly made it easier to communicate, but it could take days or weeks for the written word to arrive at its destination. Scientists searched for a faster way to transmit information. French scientists developed a communication system that used light to transmit signals in the late 18th century. American inventor Samuel Morse improved this system by creating a machine that transformed speech into electric signals and then into written words. His telegraph became a popular method to communicate quickly.
- The invention of the telegraph was the inspiration for further advances in communication technology. Using the principle behind the telegraph, American inventors Elisha Grey and Alexander Graham Bell transformed speech into an electrical signal. Unlike the telegraph, this electrical signal was transformed back into speech. This invention ultimately became more popular than the idea it was based on, and the telegraph became a thing of the past.
- Computers represented a huge leap in communication technology. Originally, computers were used perform complex mathematical equations. Eventually, scientists realized that computers could be used to communicate as well. The precursor to the Internet was created in 1989, and it allowed scientists to share documents with each other through their computers. It was not long before the Internet became publicly accessible. This technological innovation made communication faster than ever before.
- Visit computer-focused retail stores like Microcenter, CompUSA and FRYs. Browse different brands of routers, and compare product specifications and prices. Discuss technicalities and customized usage needs with store consultants and technicians.
- Surf mainstream tech and computing websites. Get the latest information, news and computer router reviews on mainstream tech and computing websites like Zdnet.com, InformationWeek.com, ZiffDavis.com, NetworkWorld.com, ComputerWorld.com and eWeek.com. Download and save articles about computer routers on your computer.
- Search for information in public libraries and bookstores. Browse reference books about computing from public libraries and read articles about routers. Access specialized databases and subscription-based information portals to get articles about computer routers. Check out books on computers and networking from the library. Browse through technology and IT magazines available in public libraries, and read news items and articles about computer routers.
- Subscribe to computer magazines. If you prefer browsing hard copies of computing magazines, then subscribe to two or three magazines like ComputerWorld, PC World, eWeek and InformationWeek to get news and information about routers.
- Visit the website for Sylvania Support and click on the link for “Download.” Enter the model number of your Blu-Ray player to see the latest firmware update version available for that model.
- Turn on the Sylvania Blu-Ray player, set the TV to the player’s input and press “Setup” on the player’s remote control to open the “Setup” menu. The firmware version currently in use in your player is shown in the upper right-hand corner. If the version shown is older than the one available on the support website, or if no version is shown at all, an update is recommended.
- Click on the link to download the latest firmware update to your computer. Locate the file when download is complete and unzip the contents of the file to a temporary folder. With Windows XP, this will involve clicking on the file, selecting “Extract All” and choosing a location for the temporary folder.
- Open a CD or DVD-burning software program on your computer. Insert a recordable disc of one of the approved formats (DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, CD-R or CD-RW) and burn the firmware update to the disc from the file’s temporary location.
- Turn off your Sylvania Blu-Ray player. Press “Open/Close” on the front panel, load the update disc and close the disc tray. You will see the message “Software Upgrade” on the screen and “Update” on the player’s LED display. Select “Yes” on the screen and press “Enter.” You will see the message “Loading Software” on the screen and “CHECKSW” on the LED display.
- Press “Enter,” open the disc tray, remove the update disc and close the tray when you see the message “New upgrade data verified. Please remove the disc and close the tray to continue.” You will see “Upgrading in Progress” on the screen, and the display will show the percentage of installation completed.
- Look for the message “Finished” on the LED display. Unplug the player’s AC cord from the outlet, wait a minimum of 30 seconds and plug the cord back in. Turn the player back on and press “Setup” to confirm that the updated version is shown in the top right-hand corner.
The earliest form of communication germinated from the necessity of human beings to convey their messages. Under the primitive circumstances, communication was local and was limited to voice signals and gestures that can be heard and viewed within the range of hearing and eyesight. These communications were also based on protocols and were direct. The protocols were the rules that were agreed upon by community members to be used for particular purposes. For example, hunters of a certain community would generate certain shrill and loud noises to alert each other about an approaching prey, while the signals for gathering at a particular location were a different one.
From the above scenario, few things should be clear. For communication, few things are absolutely necessary – a language, some predefined protocols, a processor cum controller (in this case, brain) to prompt the communicator when to communicate, an instrument to generate and transmit the message (vocal cord/hand), a form of the message (voice/noise/gestures), a medium (air/vacuum), an instrument to receive the message (eye/ear), an instrument to decode/interpret and process the received message (brain). The constraint in this scheme was that the messages were not universal in nature and were heavily dependent on physical capabilities and natural conditions.
It’s funny to notice that only the variable values have changed in the modern form of computer based communication, the variables have remained the same. For example, the language for all computers in this world is the binary language, protocols are generally defined by IEEE, every computer has a microprocessor, ports are there to transmit and receive the messages, the form is electrical signal, and the medium is wire or wireless. There has been no radical paradigm shift in the way we communicate. All the changes have been superficial in nature and the only change that has taken place is that the distance and certainty of communication has increased to some extent.
Now, after discussing the past and the present of communication technology, it is time we concentrate on the future of communication. In the future also, 3 things will remain constant – a transmitter/receiver, a processor/decode/interpreter at both ends and a form of message. The other things will either become useless or or will merged to form a single entity or hooked along with the main three ones.
In the future, communication will be based on brain waves. Human brains will be tuned to transmit and receive brain waves for any kind of communication. This will nullify the cost of physical infrastructure and the communication will be much more effective, given that human brain is the most powerful and complicated instrument human beings can ever build. It might seem to be an outrageous comment to AI scientists, but the fact is that no one can produce anything more powerful than their brain. The intensity f thoughts and the concentration level will be varied for making the communication more profound and distant.
- Divide the elements of language into small, easy to comprehend groups. Some of the elements that you need to learn are cognates, which are words that look the same in different languages. For example, the English word brother and the German word bruder.
- Identify words called connectors, or conjunctions. These words are “and,” “so,” “but” and “or.” These words can connect words, show contrast or offer a choice.
- Identify referents. Referents are words used as a substitute for a noun, or pronouns. Referents are used in speech and the written language so that you do not have to say the item’s or person’s name over and over again. He, she and it are all examples of referents.
- Identify the different parts of speech and memorize prefixes and suffixes. It is vital to be able to identify the different parts of speech, prefixes and suffixes, in order to learn technical English. This will allow you to break down a word and readily identify its meaning. An example of a prefix is hyper-, which means extra or beyond, such as in the word hyperactive. A suffix is found at the end of the word; “-ism” is a suffix that means a belief, such as in the word communism.
- Practice the lexis and grammatical elements by reading a passage and identifying the different parts of speech and elements. Lexis is similar to the word linguistics and involves the base words of the language, without prefixes, suffixes, etc. Pre-reading activities and building a high-frequency vocabulary list are ways to practice technical English.
- Visit the “About” page of the Flash section of the adobe.com website.
- Note your version of the Flash software, which is listed to the right of the page’s introductory paragraph. For example, your version may say “You have version 10,2,159,1 installed.”
- Compare your version with the list of player versions in the table at the bottom of the site. If a greater version number than yours is listed for your operating system, an update is available.
- Click the “Player Download Center” link above the list of versions if an update is required. Follow the customized installation instructions for your browser and operating system.